Boxing pioneer James Figg opened his English School of Arms and Art of Self-Defense Academy in 1719 on Tottenham Court Road, London. It closed in 1743. It was also called "Figg's Amphitheatre."
- His Academy provided for:
- Wooden rails for ring enclosure
- An elevated stage platform
- A referee who officiated outside the ring
- Sparring exhibitions before bouts
- The fight being declared over when one man remained standing
- The sports of cudgeling, fencing and boxing